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There are differences on the system configuration between electric cars and conventional cars, the different types of electric vehicles have different characteristics. Pure electric vehicles there is no engine as a power source of the air conditioning compressor, the engine does not reach the waste heat can be used in heating, defrosting effect. Fuel cell electric vehicles nor air conditioning compressor engine as a power source, but the fuel cell engine can produce relatively stable heat. For hybrid electric vehicles, engine control strategy by its decision can not be readily used as refrigeration compressor power source. Automobile air-conditioning of the vehicle interior to adjust the primary air temperature of the air is adjusted by reducing the cooling air temperature. According to the characteristics of the electric car, the electric car that can be selected for the current main methods of cooling thermoelectric air-conditioning refrigeration, electric compressor refrigeration, heat cooling. Where waste heat can be considered in the refrigeration fuel cell electric vehicle use.

(A) thermoelectric refrigeration and air conditioning systems

Thermoelectric technology development since the late 1950s up its theoretical foundation is Nepal posts, Seebeck physical effects. The principle is N-type and P-type semiconductor is connected by a metal baffle, when the current through the N P, the electric field of the N and P in the electronics reverse flow of the hole, the energy they produce thermal energy from the crystal lattice, so the deflector endotherm at the other end of the exotherm, a temperature difference. Because of its unique advantages and has been more widely used to solve many air conditioning problems on special occasions, and to meet the people needs special occasions. Currently, the technology has been applied to the steam car refrigerators, air conditioners nuclear submarines, tanks crew of astronauts and air conditioning service and so on. Our country in the 1960s began to thermoelectric technology research and produce a good performance thermoelectric materials. Thermopile cooling capacity shown in Figure 2-16 with the operating current and the temperature difference between the hot and cold ends of the curve, the cooling capacity varies with the work of the current changes seen from the figure. Thus, the cooler can be changed by adjusting its operating voltage or the radiator current, thereby changing its cooling capacity, the supply air temperature to control the vehicle.

This technology has many suitable Electric car use characteristics, and compared with the traditional mechanical compression air conditioning systems, thermoelectric air conditioners which has the following characteristics: thermoelectric elements work needs DC power supply; change the direction of current to produce the inverse effect of cooling and heating of; thermoelectric cooling chip thermal inertia is very small, the cooling time is very short, in the case of the hot end of the cold end of the heat-load of good, power less than one minute, refrigeration piece can achieve the maximum temperature; adjust the size of the components of the operating current of the cooling rate and temperature can be adjusted, Temperature control accuracy up to 0.001 ℃, and easy to implement continuous adjustment of energy; under the correct design and application conditions, the cooling efficiency up to 90%, while the heating efficiency is much greater than one; small size, light weight, compact structure, Electric vehicles will help reduce the curb weight; high reliability, long life and easy maintenance; no moving parts, therefore no vibration, no friction, no noise and impact resistance.

Domestic someone who designed a solar-assisted electric vehicle thermoelectric air-conditioning system, which uses a thermoelectric cooling system for cooling, heating and windshield were carried defogging / defrosting efficient use of PTC heating elements. For one of the thermoelectric cooling system, cooler and radiator thermopile composed by a number of groups, the principle and structure diagram shown in Figure 2-17. Cooler in the traditional automotive air conditioning system evaporator position is adjusted for removing heat from air and water, and heat to the system heat carrier medium. Radiators automotive air conditioning system are located in the traditional position of the condenser, cooler place to absorb heat carrier medium heat, and the heat is discharged into the ambient atmosphere. Heat transfer heat carrier medium can be used a mixture of glycol and water, the same as the working fluid in the tank and automotive use, cheap and no environmental pollution. In addition, due to the thermoelectric cooling efficiency depends on the size of the thermopile cold end of the temperature difference, and to strengthen the cold heat and strengthening the cold end of the hot end of the sporadic help reduce the thermopile cold end of the temperature difference, so the car inside and outside of the thermopile are made from fan forced convection to increase the transfer and the cooling efficiency of cooling capacity. Test Table 2-2 shows the system.

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